What is Covid-19

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by a newly discovered coronavirus.

Most people infected with the COVID-19 virus will experience mild to moderate respiratory illness and recover without requiring special treatment. Older people, and those with underlying medical problems like cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic respiratory disease, and cancer are more likely to develop serious illness.

The best way to prevent and slow down transmission is to be well informed about the COVID-19 virus, the disease it causes and how it spreads. Protect yourself and others from infection by washing your hands or using an alcohol based rub frequently and not touching your face.

The COVID-19 virus spreads primarily through droplets of saliva or discharge from the nose when an infected person coughs or sneezes, so it’s important that you also practice respiratory etiquette (for example, by coughing into a flexed elbow)

Protect yourself and others from COVID-19

If COVID-19 is spreading in your community, stay safe by taking some simple precautions, such as physical distancing, wearing a mask, keeping rooms well ventilated, avoiding crowds, cleaning your hands, and coughing into a bent elbow or tissue. Check local advice where you live and work. Do it all!

You also find out more about WHO's recommendations for getting vaccinated on public advice page on COVID-19 vaccines.

To prevent infection and to slow transmission of COVID-19, do the following:

Protect yourself and others around you by knowing the facts and taking appropriate precautions. Follow advice provided by your local health authority.

  • Wash your hands regularly with soap and water, or clean them with alcohol-based hand rub. Maintain at least 1 metre distance between you and people coughing or sneezing.
  • Avoid touching your face.
  • Cover your mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing.
  • Stay home if you feel unwell.
  • Refrain from smoking and other activities that weaken the lungs.
  • Practice physical distancing by avoiding unnecessary travel and staying away from large groups of people.
  • Calling in advance allows your healthcare provider to quickly direct you to the right health facility. This protects you, and prevents the spread of viruses and other infections.

    Mask

    Masks Masks can help prevent the spread of the virus from the person wearing the mask to others. Masks alone do not protect against COVID-19, and should be combined with physical distancing and hand hygiene. Follow the advice provided by your local health authority.

    What to do to keep yourself and others safe from COVID-19

  • Maintain at least a 1-metre distance between yourself and others to reduce your risk of infection when they cough, sneeze or speak. Maintain an even greater distance between yourself and others when indoors. The further away, the better.
  • Make wearing a mask a normal part of being around other people. The appropriate use, storage and cleaning or disposal are essential to make masks as effective as possible.
  • Here are the basics of how to wear a mask:

  • Clean your hands before you put your mask on, as well as before and after you take it off, and after you touch it at any time.
  • Make sure it covers both your nose, mouth and chin.
  • When you take off a mask, store it in a clean plastic bag, and every day either wash it if it’s a fabric mask, or dispose of a medical mask in a trash bin. Don’t use masks with valves.
  • How to make your environment safer

    Avoid the 3Cs: spaces that are closed, crowded or involve close contact.

  • Outbreaks have been reported in restaurants, choir practices, fitness classes, nightclubs, offices and places of worship where people have gathered, often in crowded indoor settings where they talk loudly, shout, breathe heavily or sing.
  • The risks of getting COVID-19 are higher in crowded and inadequately ventilated spaces where infected people spend long periods of time together in close proximity. These environments are where the virus appears to spread by respiratory droplets or aerosols more efficiently, so taking precautions is even more important.
  • void crowded or indoor settings but if you can’t, then take precautions:

  • Open a window. Increase the amount of ‘natural ventilation’ when indoors.
  • Wear a mask
  • Symptoms of COVID-19

    Symptoms of COVID-19 are variable, ranging from mild symptoms to severe illness.Common symptoms include headache,loss of smelland taste,nasal congestion and runny nose, cough, muscle pain, sore throat, fever, diarrhea, and breathing difficulties.People with the same infection may have different symptoms, and their symptoms may change over time. Three common clusters of symptoms have been identified: one respiratory symptom cluster with cough, sputum, shortness of breath, and fever; a musculoskeletal symptom cluster with muscle and joint pain, headache, and fatigue; a cluster of digestive symptoms with abdominal pain, vomiting, and diarrhea.In people without prior ear, nose, and throat disorders, loss of taste combined with loss of smell is associated with COVID-19. Of people who show symptoms, 81% develop only mild to moderate symptoms (up to mild pneumonia), while 14% develop severe symptoms (dyspnea, hypoxia, or more than 50% lung involvement on imaging) and 5% of patients suffer critical symptoms (respiratory failure, shock, or multiorgan dysfunction). At least a third of the people who are infected with the virus do not develop noticeable symptoms at any point in time. These asymptomatic carriers tend not to get tested and can spread the disease.Other infected people will develop symptoms later, called "pre-symptomatic", or have very mild symptoms and can also spread the virus.

    As is common with infections, there is a delay between the moment a person first becomes infected and the appearance of the first symptoms. The median delay for COVID-19 is four to five days. Most symptomatic people experience symptoms within two to seven days after exposure, and almost all will experience at least one symptom within 12 days.

    Most people recover from the acute phase of the disease. However, some people continue to experience a range of effects for months after recovery—named long COVID—and damage to organs has been observed. Multi-year studies are underway to further investigate the long-term effects of the disease.

    Treatment

    Self-care

    Asymptomatic cases, mild cases of COVID-19:

  • Isolate yourself in a well ventilated room.
  • Use a triple layer medical mask, discard mask after 8 hours of use or earlier if they become wet or visibly soiled. In the event of a caregiver entering the room, both caregiver and patient may consider using N 95 mask.
  • Mask should be discarded only after disinfecting it with 1% Sodium Hypochlorite.
  • Take rest and drink a lot of fluids to maintain adequate hydration.
  • Follow respiratory etiquettes at all times.
  • Frequent hand washing with soap and water for at least 40 seconds or clean with alcohol-based sanitizer.
  • Don’t share personal items with other people in the household.
  • Ensure cleaning of surfaces in the room that are touched often (tabletops, doorknobs, handles, etc.) with 1% hypochlorite solution.
  • Monitor temperature daily.
  • Monitor oxygen saturation with a pulse oximeter daily.
  • Connect with the treating physician promptly if any deterioration of symptoms is noticed.
  • Instructions for caregivers:

  • Mask: The caregiver should wear a triple layer medical mask. N95 mask may be considered when in the same room with the ill person.
  • Hand hygiene: Hand hygiene must be ensured following contact with ill person or patient’s immediate environment.
  • Exposure to patient/patient’s environment: Avoid direct contact with body fluids of the patient, particularly oral or respiratory secretions. Use disposable gloves while handling the patient. Perform hand hygiene before and after removing gloves.
  • For informational purposes only. Consult your local medical authority for advice.

    Medical treatments

    Treatment for patients with mild/asymptomatic disease in home isolation

  • Patients must be in communication with a treating physician and promptly report in case of any worsening.
  • Continue the medications for other co-morbid illness after consulting the treating physician.
  • Patients to follow symptomatic management for fever, running nose and cough, as warranted.
  • Patients may perform warm water gargles or take steam inhalation twice a day.
  • When to seek immediate medical attention:

  • Difficulty in breathing
  • Dip in oxygen saturation (SpO2 < 94% on room air)
  • Persistent pain/pressure in the chest
  • Mental confusion or inability to arouse Learn more on mohfw.gov.in
  • Vaccine

    List of COVID-19 vaccine authorizations

    National regulatory authorities have granted emergency use authorizations for fourteen COVID-19 vaccines. Six of those have been approved for emergency or full use by at least one WHO-recognized stringent regulatory authority (Oxford–AstraZeneca, Pfizer-BioNTech, Sputnik V,[citation needed] Sinopharm-BBIBP, Moderna, and Johnson & Johnson).

    Oxford–AstraZeneca

    The Oxford–AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine, sold under the brand names Vaxzevria and Covishield, is a viral vector vaccine produced by the British University of Oxford, British-Swedish company AstraZeneca, and the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations.Two countries, Denmark and Norway, permanently halted the use of the Oxford–AstraZeneca vaccine due to a small number of reports of a rare blood clot disorder.

    Pfizer–BioNTech

    The Pfizer–BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine, also known as Comirnaty, is an mRNA vaccineproduced by the German company BioNTech and the American company Pfizer.In mainland China, Hong Kong, and Macau, Comirnaty is distributed by Fosun Pharma

    Sputnik V

    The Sputnik V COVID-19 vaccine is a viral vector vaccine produced by the Russian Gamaleya Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology.

    Moderna

    The Moderna COVID-19 vaccine is an RNA vaccine produced by the American company Moderna, the U.S. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, the U.S. Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority, and the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations.

    Sinopharm-BBIBP

    Sinopharm BBIBP-CorV COVID-19 vaccine is an inactivated virus vaccine produced by the China National Pharmaceutical Group (Sinopharm) and its Beijing Institute of Biological Products.

    Johnson & Johnson

    The Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 vaccine is a viral vector vaccine produced by Janssen Pharmaceutica (a subsidiary of Johnson & Johnson) and Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center. It is also known as Janssen COVID-19 Vaccine and as COVID-19 Vaccine Janssen. Two countries, Denmark and Norway, discontinued the use of the Johnson & Johnson p>ccine in favor of other available vaccines due to a possible link between the vaccine and a rare blood clot disorder.

    CoronaVac

    CoronaVac is an inactivated virus vaccine produced by the Chinese company Sinovac Biotech.

    Covaxin

    Covaxin is an inactivated virus vaccine produced by the Indian company Bharat Biotech and the Indian Council of Medical Research.

    Convidecia

    Convidecia is a viral vector vaccine produced by the Chinese company CanSino Biologics and the Beijing Institute of Biotechnology of the Academy of Military Medical Sciences.

    Sputnik Light

    Sputnik Light is a viral vector vaccine, produced by the Russian Gamaleya Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology. It actually consists of the first dose of the Sputnik V vaccine, which is based on the Ad26 vector.

    EpiVacCorona

    EpiVacCorona is a peptide vaccine produced by the Russian State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology VECTOR[426]

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